Here are the most basic techniques you need to know for synthetic biology

Basic Terminology
Equipment
Bunsen burner - Makes a sterile 'bubble' that you can work in, meaning your cultures won't be contaminated by other bacteria or mold spores in the air
Innoculation loop - Used to transfer cell cultures around and streak them in a way to obtain pure cell lines
PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction, a method used to create millions and millions  of copies of a section of DNA of your choice from a template.
 
Synthetic biology
Vectors - A DNA vessel ecoding the desired genes that is transferred into the cell
Plasmids - A DNA strand that forms a circular structure that acts as a vector, we give our cells functions by placing different genes inside these plasmids and
Protein - A complex molecule that DNA produces after Transcription and Translation, there are millions of proteins and they perform different functions inside the cell i.e enzymes, coloured proteins, transport proteins, DNA binding proteins, ribosomes etc.
Transcription - The process of converting the DNA code into mRNA (messenger RNA) using ribosomes
Ribosomes - A protein that 'reads' DNA and synthesizes a complementary mRNA from it
Translation - The process of converting mRNA into protein
Promoter - A region of DNA before the gene that controls how much mRNA will be produced or when they will be produced by attracting different proteins (that in turn attract or prevent ribosomes from binding.


 
 

Updates: Added 'Online tools' section